Showing posts from May, 2020

What are Autophytes and Heterophytes?

As we all know that plants are an important entity of life mainly as a source of food and nutrition. But had we ever thought that how these plants obtain their nutrition or simply say food ? Based upon the mode of nutrition plants are categorised into two groups i.e., Autophytes and Heterophytes. Autophytes: Autophytes or autotrophic plants are those that are capable of synthesizing their own food by using light energy, carbon dioxide and water by a process called photosynthesis. For this reason autotrophic plants are also considered as the primary producers. However few bacteria can also produce their own food by using chemical energy. Autophytes includes green plants, algae and few bacteria. Heterophytes: Heterophytes or heterotrophic plants are those plants that are incapable of synthesizing their own food. These forms of plants mainly depend on other living organisms for their source of nutrition. Heterophytes can be parasitic (partial or total) or sap

What are “Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes”?

As we all know that cell is the basic unit of organisation in all living organisms of the universe. These organisms on the basis of their cell characters are broadly classified as: A. Prokaryotes B. Eukaryotes A.    Prokaryotes: The term Prokaryotes is the combination of two words i.e., “ pro ” means primitive and “ karyon ” means nucleus. The group is characterised by the lack of nucleus and any membrane bound organelles. Prokaryotes include Bacteria, Cyanobacteria and Archaea. B. Eukaryotes: In contrast to prokaryotes, eukaryotes (“ eu” means true) exhibit a complex structural organisation comprising membrane bound organelles such as nucleus, plastids, mitochondria, golgi body, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes etc. Additionally the cells of eukaryotes are much larger than prokaryotes. This group mainly includes plants, fungi, protists and animals.


The diversity of organisms we see in day today life is the outcome of billion years of evolutionary process. For proper and systematic study, these living organisms should be grouped on the basis of certain criteria. Robert. H. Whittaker (1969) proposed the Five Kingdom Classification of the living organisms. He classified the living organisms on the basis of cell structure, cell wall, mode of nutrition and mode of reproduction into five kingdoms.

What are the branches of Botany?

Branches of Botany The subject botany is a wide area that includes all information related to plants ranging from smallest microorganism to the largest living organism, the giant Sequoia trees. This subject considers the in-depth knowledge that includes morphological, physiological, cytological etc details of plants. Henceforth on the basis of the above aspect Botany has been subdivided into the following branches: 1.        Plant Morphology 2.        Plant anatomy 3.        Histology 4.        Cytology 5.        Plant genetics 6.        Plant Physiology 7.        Biochemistry 8.        Plant Taxonomy 9.        Plant Ecology 10.      Plant Breeding 11.     Embryology 12.      Palaeobotany 13.      Phytopathology 14.     Economic Botany 15.     Plant Biotechnology 16.      Genetic Engineering 17.      Molecular Biology 18.     Microbiology 19.     Palynology 20.     Biometrics Apart these there are also specific study of certain groups