Bryophytes are homosporous and monoecious but why few are dioecious?

Bryophytes are homosporous and monoecious but why few are dioecious? To get this answer first we need to know what is the homosporous condition? The spores of bryophytes are highly specialised cells produced in the capsule of the sporophyte. These spores are morphologically alike in size and thus are homosporous . Each of the spores then germinates under suitable condition to give rise to the main gametophyte. Monoecious and dioecious conditions refer to the gametophytic phase. With the initiation of this phase two kinds of sex organs appears ie., antherdia and archegonia. If these sex organs are developed on the same thallus, such species are monoecious ( Riccia sp ). On the contrary if antherdia and archegonia are borne on different thalli then they are dioecious eg., Marchantia sp.

What are Thallophyta?

What are Thallophyta? The term “Thallophyta” is derived from the Greek word i.e., thallus means young shoot; phyta refers to plant. The plant under this division are primitive exhibiting thalloid plant body i.e., not differentiated into stem, leaves and roots. The term thallophyta was first introduced by Stephan Endlicher in 1836. Thallophyta is the compilation of a wide variety of plants ranging from unicellular to multicellular with simple mode of reproduction. This group mainly includes members of Algae and Fungi. Algae are autotrophic in nature comprising a range of pigments including chlorophyll. These plants mainly grow in water or in moist condition eg., Nostoc sp, Chara sp, Vaucheria sp, Diatoms, Polsiphonia sp . Whereas members in fungal group are heterotrophic due to the absence of chlorophyll pigment. So for their survival they either live as a saprophyte, parasite or in symbiotic relation with the host species. Examples includes species of Alternaria

What are Autophytes and Heterophytes?

As we all know that plants are an important entity of life mainly as a source of food and nutrition. But had we ever thought that how these plants obtain their nutrition or simply say food ? Based upon the mode of nutrition plants are categorised into two groups i.e., Autophytes and Heterophytes. Autophytes: Autophytes or autotrophic plants are those that are capable of synthesizing their own food by using light energy, carbon dioxide and water by a process called photosynthesis. For this reason autotrophic plants are also considered as the primary producers. However few bacteria can also produce their own food by using chemical energy. Autophytes includes green plants, algae and few bacteria. Heterophytes: Heterophytes or heterotrophic plants are those plants that are incapable of synthesizing their own food. These forms of plants mainly depend on other living organisms for their source of nutrition. Heterophytes can be parasitic (partial or total) or sap

What are “Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes”?

As we all know that cell is the basic unit of organisation in all living organisms of the universe. These organisms on the basis of their cell characters are broadly classified as: A. Prokaryotes B. Eukaryotes A.    Prokaryotes: The term Prokaryotes is the combination of two words i.e., “ pro ” means primitive and “ karyon ” means nucleus. The group is characterised by the lack of nucleus and any membrane bound organelles. Prokaryotes include Bacteria, Cyanobacteria and Archaea. B. Eukaryotes: In contrast to prokaryotes, eukaryotes (“ eu” means true) exhibit a complex structural organisation comprising membrane bound organelles such as nucleus, plastids, mitochondria, golgi body, endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes etc. Additionally the cells of eukaryotes are much larger than prokaryotes. This group mainly includes plants, fungi, protists and animals.


The diversity of organisms we see in day today life is the outcome of billion years of evolutionary process. For proper and systematic study, these living organisms should be grouped on the basis of certain criteria. Robert. H. Whittaker (1969) proposed the Five Kingdom Classification of the living organisms. He classified the living organisms on the basis of cell structure, cell wall, mode of nutrition and mode of reproduction into five kingdoms.

What are the branches of Botany?

Branches of Botany The subject botany is a wide area that includes all information related to plants ranging from smallest microorganism to the largest living organism, the giant Sequoia trees. This subject considers the in-depth knowledge that includes morphological, physiological, cytological etc details of plants. Henceforth on the basis of the above aspect Botany has been subdivided into the following branches: 1.        Plant Morphology 2.        Plant anatomy 3.        Histology 4.        Cytology 5.        Plant genetics 6.        Plant Physiology 7.        Biochemistry 8.        Plant Taxonomy 9.        Plant Ecology 10.      Plant Breeding 11.     Embryology 12.      Palaeobotany 13.      Phytopathology 14.     Economic Botany 15.     Plant Biotechnology 16.      Genetic Engineering 17.      Molecular Biology 18.     Microbiology 19.     Palynology 20.     Biometrics Apart these there are also specific study of certain groups

Why to study plants?

In my previous blog, you have known the definition of Botany. Now a question can come in your mind – why to know about plants? As we all know plants are an important source of food, fodder and fibres. These are also beneficial in maintaining an ecological balance. These major roles of plants which we come across in our day to day life may compel us to know many more interesting facts about them. To be more elaborate, suppose you are walking in a garden where you come across colourful flowers or green grass, a query may arise that what is the reason behind their colour, why their leaves are green etc..............................................................? Similarly, if you are consuming cereals or pulses or vegetables or fruits, once again a lot of questions may arise to know about them, as we are consuming these in our day to day life. So, to get answer to these queries and for many more upcoming questions that will come in our mind regarding plants one has to